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Zero Discharge Electroplating
Case study of plating shop in environmentally sensitive area where operation was allowed only subject to zero effluent discharge. Plant is described incl. use of compressed air for drag-out removal & vacuum evaporator to aid recycling. Some cost figures suggest that operating costs are no higher than conventional plants. Equipment was German Federally funded.
Zero Discharge Electroplating - A Role for the In-House Power Plant ?
The benefits of in-house electrical power generation for electroplating plants are described (CHP = combined heat & power). Tables detail typical figures of performance & cost (capital & running). The key is the need, in plating plants, for low-grade heat for sludge drying and vacuum evaporation for rinse water recycling.
Zero Discharge Electroplating Based on Three Actual Case Studies
Three companies whose operations involve metal finishing are described and costs summarised. Ion exchangers allow virtually closed loop operation.
Zero Discharge Electroplating of Steel with Copper Nickel Chromium
"Mercedes-Benz" perspective discusses general economic factors. Cascade rinsing is treated, with process flowsheet showing metal finishing of car radiators. Rinsing for baths operating at above-ambient temperatures (hot) and for ambient baths is summarised. Rinsing & evaporation flowsheets for copper (acid & cyanide) & Cr. Bath management in cyanide Cu with graph showing carbonate, cyanide & Cu concentrations as function of bath life (A/hr). Closed (zero discharge) Ni plating system is described. Electrolysis cells for metal contaminant removal from chloride containing baths (membranes required) & from Cr plating baths. Mass balance for bright Ni is given, costs are shown in detail for 3 rinsing options. 6 refs.
Zero Discharge Electroplating Thanks to Recycling
Case study of a plating plant in Germany fitted with selective ion exchangers to reduce effluents and effectively recycle water and other chemicals. Block diagram shows how ion exchange deals with cyanides & complexed metallic species. Electrolytic copper recovery & electrolytic hypochlorite generation are also used. Calcium hydroxide is prepared from chalk on-site.
Zero discharge electroplating. Four case studies
4 case studies include hard chromium plating plant, a general jobbing plater in central Paris (copper, brass, nickel, silver, gold), a barrel zinc line and a nickel +chromium plant. Descriptions of each with process flowsheets.
Zero discharge hexavalent chromium plating
Brief note reports new plant at Messrs Poeton, Gloucester.
Zero discharge in metal finishing & surface treatment using vacuum distillation
Title evaporators are compared with other types, emphasises energy savings. Distillation of 1 litre water requires of order 1 KWhr in normal evaporator. Title system with heat pump reduces this to 0.05 KWhr. Sketches & process flow sheets show systems & application areas in surface finishing are noted.
Zero discharge of process water from phosphating pretreatment tunnel
Ultrafiltration technology, used by Italian contract coater, is described.
Zero discharge operation of zinc nickel plating lines
Closed-loop operation using evaporators & other methods is briefly noted.
Zero discharge paint shop
Case study of dip-painted steel switchgear housings where zero effluent was achieved with recirculation of water using nanofiltration membrane technology, the filtrate can be used in bio-gas production.
Zero Discharge Plants for Electroplating Nickel & Chromium
Report on a meeting to promote commercial plants of Messrs Galvani, Dresden gives physical sizes, capacity of plant, describes high pressure cyanide destruction unit (hydrolysis) &use of low pressure evaporator to achieve zero-discharge operation .
Zero discharge pretreatment
Avoidance of effluent discharge & solid waste is state of art in Germany. 6 stage continuous iron phosphating line is shown. Chromate-free passivation of aluminium can be done in same plant. Oscillating spray matrix and water mist generation from an annulus through which work passes. Controlled drop-off time minimises drag-over. Triple rinse can be fitted into a single chamber. Variants are 4 or 3 stage plants.
Zero discharge production by combining new environmental technologies
Case study of Flemish metal finishers Malmar NV who operate phosphating, primer painting & powder coating. Flow sheet shows water use, incl. rainwater capture, use of "grey" water in toilets, reverse osmosis, vacuum evaporators (3) and sludge filter press. Separate flowsheet shows water & effluent treatment
Zero discharge recovery
Activities of US Enviro-Chem Inc are described, incl. gold recovery from printed circuit board scrap. Chemical dissolution is coupled with physical process "Slurry-Mizer", a type of sludge dryer using a heated tank and helical screw. After drying, process residues are smelted when cyanide is destroyed and gold & other precious metals recovered.