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Calculating & Minimising Leakage Currents in Bipolar Cell Stacks

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Mathematical equations are set out to calculate shunt currents and it is concluded that losses are uniquely det'd by "n" the number of cells and "b" a resistance coefficient. Factors affecting the value of "b" are set out and it is shown how these can be applied to actual cell design. 7 refs.

Calculating & negotiating environmental penalties

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US legislation is discussed, in terms of violation, compliance or otherwise, with legislation. Table & discussion on implications of major and minor breaches.

Calculating colouring formulations for vitreous enamel coatings

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Colour consistency is a high priority for enamel coaters. Proprietary software is avail. for this or one can devise mathematical models of pigment effects and use a spreadsheet approach. Factors affecting colour of enamel coatings are reviewed. A math expression represents the outcome of grinding process. Graphs show effect of colour values (L.a.b) on pigment concentration. Regression equations and vector equations represent colour factors. Tables show actual & calculated colour values. Discussion of factors interefering with colour shades, with graphs showing effewcts of coating thickness, firing time and temperature. 5 refs

Calculating corrosion.

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Modelling is discussed. With time, more and more corrosion stimulators permeate to the boundary between substrate and coating. The coating formulation and the film thickness both influence the rate of permeation. Once a certain concentration is reached, corrosion begins. A mathematical model for calculating this concentration is provided.

Calculating current distribution in electroplating of wires

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Equivalent circuit is shown and current modelling described, ncl. use of MathCad software. Graphs show current & voltage distribution, matrix equations are shown. 1 ref

Calculating Internal Stresses in Electrodeposits

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PROT Analysis of stresses, both in terms of their direction (longitudinal, axial etc) and the effect to which they can affect substrate when this itself is of small cross-section. Complex mathematical models are set out. Graph shows cathode deformation for chromium dep'd onto annealed copper wire vs. Cr thickness as well as components of that total, i.e that due to deposit and to substrate. 5 refs.

Calculating lifetime cost of paint lines

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Consultancy business has devised software to calculate life-cycle costing of paintshop equipment. Graph shows cumulated costs over a decade or longer, using equipment from 4 different suppliers. Not clear is how such forecasts handle unknowns, such as interest rates and increasing costs of energy and coating materials. www.ingencis.de

Calculating paint coverage

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How much paint is required to cover a known surface area to a given thickness ? How to convert dry film thickness tro wet ? How to calculate VOC content ? Sample calculations are shown.

Calculating paint coverage

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Calculating Parameters of Perforated Shields for Electroforming Applications

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Simple approach to calculating shield parameters with simple equations & graphs showing current density with & without a shield. 2 refs

Calculating Redox Potential of Gases, Relates Oxygen Partial Pressure at Known Temperature to Corresponding Value in Contact with Metal-Metal Oxide System

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Calculating Redox Potential of Gases, Relates Oxygen Partial Pressure at Known Temperature to Corresponding Value in Contact with Metal-Metal Oxide System

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Calculating steady-state concentration of recovery bath and counter-current rinse baths

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Calculating surface electrical resistivities of conductive fabrics

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In the context of metallized fabrics used for EMC EMI or RFI shielding, a model is shown for predicting surface resistivity of conductive woven, filament yarn fabrics. Equations show data for nylon, PET, polyester taffeta coated with copper. Non-wovens and spun yarn aremore difficult to model and are excluded. Approach is also used for inherently conducting polymers such as polypyrrole, deposited on fabrics. 6 refs

Calculating the concentration of a single static rinse bath during operation

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Mathematical treatment of static rinse tank concn. is presented.